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CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide (CCENT Exam 640-822 and CCNA Exam 640-802), 2nd Edition

by: Wendell Odom

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Publisher: CISCO PRESS,03.09.07

Category: CCNA Level:

ISBN: 1587201828
ISBN13: 9781587201820

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Prepare for the Cisco CCNA INTRO exam with the only official INTRO preparation guide available, updated for recent changes

  * CD-ROM testing engine featuring customizable test banks, score and history reporting, and a study plan building tool

  * Network simulation software allows readers to try out lab scenarios in book

  * Modular writing style breaks subjects into easier to absorb learning blocks for networking novices

  * Testing engine includes INTRO, ICND, and simulation-based questions

Table of Contents


Part I Networking Fundamentals 3

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking Concepts 5

  Perspectives on Networking 5

          The Flintstones Network: The First Computer Network? 8

Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 17

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 18

  Foundation Topics 21

          The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 22

          The TCP/IP Application Layer 23

          The TCP/IP Transport Layer 25

          The TCP/IP Internet Layer 27

          The TCP/IP Network Access Layer 28

          Data Encapsulation Terminology 30

  The OSI Reference Model 32

          Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32

          OSI Layers and Their Functions 34

          OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35

          OSI Encapsulation Terminology 36

  Exam Preparation Tasks 38

  Review all the Key Topics 38

          Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 38

          Definitions of Key Terms 38

          OSI Reference 39

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of LANs 41

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 41

  Foundation Topics 45

  An Overview of Modern Ethernet LANs 45

  A Brief History of Ethernet 48

          The Original Ethernet Standards: 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 48

          Repeaters 50

          Building 10BASE-T Networks with Hubs 51

  Ethernet UTP Cabling 52

          UTP Cables and RJ-45 Connectors 52

          Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 54

          UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX 55

          1000BASE-T Cabling 58

  Improving Performance by Using Switches Instead of Hubs 58


          Increasing Available Bandwidth Using Switches 61

          Doubling Performance by Using Full-Duplex Ethernet 62

          Ethernet Layer 1 Summary 63

          Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 63

          Ethernet Addressing 64

          Ethernet Framing 65

          Identifying the Data Inside an Ethernet Frame 67

          Error Detection 68

  Exam Preparation Tasks 69

  Review All the Key Topics 69

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 69

  Definitions of Key Terms 69

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 71

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 71

  Foundation Topics 74

  OSI Layer 1 for Point-to-Point WANs 74

          WAN Connections from the Customer Viewpoint 77

          WAN Cabling Standards 78

          Clock Rates, Synchronization, DCE, and DTE 80

          Building a WAN Link in a Lab 81

          Link Speeds Offered by Telcos 82

  OSI Layer 2 for Point-to-Point WANs 83

          HDLC 83

          Point-to-Point Protocol 85

          Point-to-Point WAN Summary 85

  Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Services 86

          The Scaling Benefits of Packet Switching 86

          Frame Relay Basics 87

  Exam Preparation Tasks 91

  Review All the Key Topics 91

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 91

  Definitions of Key Terms 91

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IP Addressing and Routing 93

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 93

  Foundation Topics 98

  Overview of Network Layer Functions 98

          Routing (Forwarding) 99

          PC1's Logic: Sending Data to a Nearby Router 100

          R1 and R2's Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 100

          R3's Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 100

          Network Layer Interaction with the Data Link Layer 101

          IP Packets and the IP Header 102

          Network Layer (Layer 3) Addressing 103

          Routing Protocols 104

          IP Addressing 105

          IP Addressing Definitions 105

          How IP Addresses Are Grouped 106

          Classes of Networks 107

          The Actual Class A, B, and C Network Numbers 109

          IP Subnetting 110

  IP Routing 114

          Host Routing 114

          Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 115

  IP Routing Protocols 118

  Network Layer Utilities 121

          Address Resolution Protocol and the Domain Name System 121

          DNS Name Resolution 122

          The ARP Process 122

          Address Assignment and DHCP 123

          ICMP Echo and the ping Command 125

  Exam Preparation Tasks 126

  Review All the Key Topics 126

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 127

  Definitions of Key Terms 127

Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security 129

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 129

  Foundation Topics 133

  TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 133

          Transmission Control Protocol 134

          Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 135

          Popular TCP/IP Applications 138

          Error Recovery (Reliability) 140

          Flow Control Using Windowing 141

          Connection Establishment and Termination 142

          Data Segmentation and Ordered Data Transfer 144

          User Datagram Protocol 145

  TCP/IP Applications 146

          QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 146

          The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 149

          Universal Resource Locators 150

          Finding the Web Server Using DNS 150

          Transferring Files with HTTP 152

  Network Security 153

          Perspectives on the Sources and Types of Threats 154

          Firewalls and the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 158

          Anti-x 160

          Intrusion Detection and Prevention 160

          Virtual Private Networks (VPN) 161

  Exam Preparation Tasks 163

  Review All the Key Topics 163

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 163

  Definitions of Key Terms 163

Part II LAN Switching 165

Chapter 7 Ethernet LAN Switching Concepts 167

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 167

  Foundation Topics 171

  LAN Switching Concepts 171

          Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 171

          Switching Logic 174

          The Forward Versus Filter Decision 175

          How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 177

          Flooding Frames 178

          Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 179

          Internal Processing on Cisco Switches 180

          LAN Switching Summary 182

  LAN Design Considerations 183

          Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 183

          Collision Domains 183

          Broadcast Domains 184

          The Impact of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design 185

          Virtual LANs (VLAN) 187

          Campus LAN Design Terminology 188

          Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 191

  Exam Preparation Tasks 194

  Review All the Key Topics 194

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 194

  Definitions of Key Terms 195

Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 197

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 197

  Foundation Topics 200

  Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 200

          Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 201

          Switch Status from LEDs 202

          Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 205

          CLI Access from the Console 206

          Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 208

          Password Security for CLI Access 208

          User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 210

          CLI Help Features 211

          The debug and show Commands 213

  Configuring Cisco IOS Software 214

          Configuration Submodes and Contexts 215

          Storing Switch Configuration Files 217

          Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 220

          Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 221

  Exam Preparation Tasks 226

  Review All the Key Topics 226

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 226

  Definitions of Key Terms 226

  Command References 226

Chapter 9 Ethernet Switch Configuration 231

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 231

  Foundation Topics 235

  Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 235

          Securing the Switch CLI 235

          Configuring Simple Password Security 236

          Configuring Usernames and Secure Shell (SSH) 239

          Password Encryption 242

          The Two Enable Mode Passwords 244

          Console and vty Settings 245

          Banners 245

          History Buffer Commands 246

          The logging synchronous and exec-timeout Commands 247

  LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 248

          Configuring the Switch IP Address 248

          Configuring Switch Interfaces 251

          Port Security 253

          VLAN Configuration 256

          Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 259

  Exam Preparation Tasks 261

  Review All the Key Topics 261

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 261

  Definitions of Key Terms 262

  Command References 262

Chapter 10 Ethernet Switch Troubleshooting 267

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 267

  Foundation Topics 271

  Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 271

          Attacking Sim Questions 271

          Simlet Questions 272

          Multiple-Choice Questions 273

          Approaching Questions with an Organized Troubleshooting Process 273

          Isolating Problems at Layer 3, and Then at Layers 1 and 2 275

          Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 276

          Verifying the Network Topology with Cisco Discovery Protocol 277

          Analyzing Layer 1 and 2 Interface Status 282

          Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 282

          Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 284

          Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 287

  Analyzing the Layer 2 Forwarding Path with the MAC Address Table 289

          Analyzing the Forwarding Path 292

          Port Security and Filtering 293

  Exam Preparation Tasks 295

  Review All the Key Topics 295

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 295

  Definitions of Key Terms 295

  Command References 295

Chapter 11 Wireless LANs 299

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 299

  Foundation Topics 302

  Wireless LAN Concepts 302

          Comparisons with Ethernet LANs 302

          Wireless LAN Standards 304

          Modes of 802.11 Wireless LANs 305

          Wireless Transmissions (Layer 1) 307

          Wireless Encoding and Nonoverlapping DSSS Channels 309

          Wireless Interference 311

          Coverage Area, Speed, and Capacity 311

          Media Access (Layer 2) 314

  Deploying WLANs 315

          Wireless LAN Implementation Checklist 315

          Step 1: Verify the Existing Wired Network 316

          Step 2: Install and Configure the AP's Wired and IP Details 317

          Step 3: Configure the AP's WLAN Details 317

          Step 4: Install and Configure One Wireless Client 318

          Step 5: Verify That the WLAN Works from the Client 319

  Wireless LAN Security 320

          WLAN Security Issues 320

          The Progression of WLAN Security Standards 322

          Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) 322

          SSID Cloaking and MAC Filtering 323

          The Cisco Interim Solution Between WEP and 802.11i 324

          Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 325

          IEEE 802.11i and WPA-2 325

  Exam Preparation Tasks 327

  Review All the Key Topics 327

          Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 327

          Definitions of Key Terms 327

Part III IP Routing 329

Chapter 12 IP Addressing and Subnetting 331

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 331

  Foundation Topics 336

  Exam Preparation Tools for Subnetting 336

          Suggested Subnetting Preparation Plan 337

          More Practice Using a Subnet Calculator 338

  IP Addressing and Routing 339

          IP Addressing Review 339

          Public and Private Addressing 341

          IP Version 6 Addressing 342

          IP Subnetting Review 343

          IP Routing Review 345

  Math Operations Used When Subnetting 347

          Converting IP Addresses and Masks from Decimal to Binary and Back Again 347

          Performing a Boolean AND Operation 349

          Prefix Notation/CIDR Notation 351

          Binary Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix Notation 352

          Decimal Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix

          Notation 353

          Practice Suggestions 355

  Analyzing and Choosing Subnet Masks 355

          Analyzing the Subnet Mask in an Existing Subnet Design 356

          The Three Parts: Network, Subnet, and Host 356

          Binary Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 357

          Decimal Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 358

          Determining the Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts Per Subnet 359

          Number of Subnets: Subtract 2, or Not? 360

          Practice Examples for Analyzing Subnet Masks 361

          Choosing a Subnet Mask that Meets Design Requirements 362

          Finding the Only Possible Mask 363

          Finding Multiple Possible Masks 365

          Choosing the Mask that Maximizes the Number of Subnets or Hosts 366

          Practice Suggestions 367

  Analyzing Existing Subnets 368

          Finding the Subnet Number: Binary 368

          Finding the Subnet Number: Binary Shortcut 371

          Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 372

          Finding the Range of Valid IP Addresses in a Subnet 375

          Finding the Subnet, Broadcast Address, and Range of Addresses: Decimal

          Process 377

          Decimal Process with Easy Masks 377

          Decimal Process with Difficult Masks 378

          Finding the Broadcast Address: Decimal 381

          Summary of Decimal Processes to Find the Subnet, Broadcast, and Range 382

          Practice Suggestions 383

  Design: Choosing the Subnets of a Classful Network 384

          Finding All Subnets with Fewer Than 8 Subnet Bits 384

          Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 388

          Practice Suggestions 389

          Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 389

          More Practice Suggestions 393

  Exam Preparation Tasks 394

  Review All the Key Topics 394

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 396

  Definitions of Key Terms 396

  Read Appendix F Scenario 1, Part A 396

  Subnetting Questions and Processes 396

Chapter 13 Operating Cisco Routers 399

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 399

  Foundation Topics 403

  Installing Cisco Routers 403

          Installing Enterprise Routers 403

          Cisco Integrated Services Routers 405

          Physical Installation 406

          Installing Internet Access Routers 407

          A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and

          Cable Modem 407

          A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and

          DSL Modem 408

          Regarding the SOHO Devices Used in This Book 409

  Cisco Router IOS CLI 409

          Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 410

          Router Interfaces 411

          Interface Status Codes 413

          Router Interface IP Addresses 414

          Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 415

          Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 417

          Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 417

  Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process 420

          Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 420

          The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 423

          The Three Router Operating Systems 425

          The Configuration Register 425

          How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 426

          The show version Command and Seeing the Configuration Register's

          Value 429

  Exam Preparation Tasks 431

  Review All the Key Topics 431

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 431

  Definitions of Key Terms 432

  Read Appendix F Scenario 2 432

  Command References 432

Chapter 14 Routing Protocol Concepts and Configuration 435

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 435

  Foundation Topics 439

    Connected and Static Routes 439

          Connected Routes 439

          Static Routes 442

          Extended ping Command 444

          Default Routes 446

          Routing Protocol Overview 448

          RIP-2 Basic Concepts 449

          Comparing and Contrasting IP Routing Protocols 450

          Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 451

          Routing Protocol Types/Algorithms 452

          Metrics 452

          Autosummarization and Manual Summarization 454

          Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 454

          Convergence 455

          Miscellaneous Comparison Points 455

          Summary of Interior Routing Protocols 455

  Configuring and Verifying RIP-2 456

          RIP-2 Configuration 456

          Sample RIP Configuration 457

          RIP-2 Verification 458

          Interpreting the Output of the show ip route Command 460

          Administrative Distance 461

          The show ip protocols Command 462

          Examining RIP Messages with debug 464

  Exam Preparation Tasks 467

  Review All the Key Topics 467

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 467

  Definitions of Key Terms 468

  Command References 468

Chapter 15 Troubleshooting IP Routing 471

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 471

  Foundation Topics 475

  IP Troubleshooting Tips and Tools 475

          IP Addressing 475

          Avoiding Reserved IP Addresses 475

          One Subnet, One Mask, for Each LAN 476

          Summary of IP Addressing Tips 478

          Host Networking Commands 478

          Troubleshooting Host Routing Problems 482

          Finding the Matching Route on a Router 483

          Troubleshooting Commands 485

          The show ip arp Command 485

          The traceroute Command 486

          Telnet and Suspend 487

  A Routing Troubleshooting Scenario 491

          Scenario Part A: Tasks and Questions 491

          Scenario Part A: Answers 494

          Scenario Part B: Analyze Packet/Frame Flow 495

          Scenario Part B: Answers 496

          Scenario Part B: Question 1 497

          Scenario Part B: Question 2 498

          Scenario Part B: Question 3 499

          Scenario Part B: Question 4 501

          Scenario Part B: Question 5 501

          Scenario Part B: Question 6 502

          Scenario Part B: Question 7 503

          Scenario Part C: Analyze Connected Routes 503

          Scenario Part C: Answers 503

  Exam Preparation Tasks 505

  Review All the Key Topics 505

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 506

  Command Reference 506

Part IV Wide-Area Networks 509

  Chapter 16 WAN Concepts 511

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 511

  Foundation Topics 514

          WAN Technologies 514

          Perspectives on the PSTN 514

          Analog Modems 517

          Digital Subscriber Line 519

          DSL Types, Speeds, and Distances 521

          DSL Summary 522

          Cable Internet 523

          Comparison of Remote-Access Technologies 525

          ATM 525

          Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching 527

          Ethernet as a WAN Service 527

  IP Services for Internet Access 528

          Address Assignment on the Internet Access Router 529

          Routing for the Internet Access Router 530

          NAT and PAT 531

  Exam Preparation Tasks 536

  Review All the Key Topics 536

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 536

  Definitions of Key Terms 537

Chapter 17 WAN Configuration 539

  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 539

  Foundation Topics 542

          Configuring Point-to-Point WANs 542

          Configuring HDLC 542

          Configuring PPP 545

  Configuring and Troubleshooting Internet Access Routers 546

          Internet Access Router: Configuration Steps 547

          Step 1: Establish IP Connectivity 547

          Step 2: Install and Access SDM 548

          Step 3: Configure DHCP and PAT 549

          Step 4: Plan for DHCP Services 554

          Step 5: Configure the DHCP Server 556

          Internet Access Router Verification 557

  Exam Preparation Tasks 560

  Review All the Key Topics 560

  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 560

  Definitions of Key Terms 560

  Command References 560

Part V Final Preparation 563

Chapter 18 Final Preparation 565

  Tools for Final Preparation 565

          Exam Engine and Questions on the CD 565

          Install the Software from the CD 566

          Activate and Download the Practice Exam 566

          Activating Other Exams 567

          The Cisco CCNA Prep Center 567

          Subnetting Videos, Reference Pages, and Practice Problems 568

          Scenarios 568

  Study Plan 569

          Recall the Facts 569

          Practice Subnetting 570

          Build Troubleshooting Skills Using Scenarios 571

          Use the Exam Engine 571

          Choosing Study or Simulation Mode 572

          Choosing the Right Exam Option 572

  Summary 573

Part VI Appendixes 575

  Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes 577

  Chapter 2 577

  Chapter 3 578

  Chapter 4 578

  Chapter 5 579

  Chapter 6 579

  Chapter 7 580

  Chapter 8 581

  Chapter 9 581

  Chapter 10 582

  Chapter 11 583

  Chapter 12 584

  Chapter 13 585

  Chapter 14 586

  Chapter 15 587

  Chapter 16 588

  Chapter 17 589

Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 591

Appendix C ICND1 Exam Updates: Version 1.0 595

Glossary 599