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CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide (CCENT Exam 640-822 and CCNA Exam 640-802), 2nd Edition

by: Wendell Odom

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Publisher: CISCO PRESS,03.09.07

Category: CCNA Level:

ISBN: 1587201828
ISBN13: 9781587201820

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Prepare for the Cisco CCNA INTRO exam with the only official INTRO preparation guide available, updated for recent changes


  * CD-ROM testing engine featuring customizable test banks, score and history reporting, and a study plan building tool


  * Network simulation software allows readers to try out lab scenarios in book


  * Modular writing style breaks subjects into easier to absorb learning blocks for networking novices


  * Testing engine includes INTRO, ICND, and simulation-based questions



Table of Contents

top


Part I Networking Fundamentals 3

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking Concepts 5


  Perspectives on Networking 5


          The Flintstones Network: The First Computer Network? 8

Chapter 2 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 17


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 18


  Foundation Topics 21


          The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 22


          The TCP/IP Application Layer 23


          The TCP/IP Transport Layer 25


          The TCP/IP Internet Layer 27


          The TCP/IP Network Access Layer 28


          Data Encapsulation Terminology 30


  The OSI Reference Model 32


          Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32


          OSI Layers and Their Functions 34


          OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35


          OSI Encapsulation Terminology 36


  Exam Preparation Tasks 38


  Review all the Key Topics 38


          Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 38


          Definitions of Key Terms 38


          OSI Reference 39

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of LANs 41


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 41


  Foundation Topics 45


  An Overview of Modern Ethernet LANs 45


  A Brief History of Ethernet 48


          The Original Ethernet Standards: 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 48


          Repeaters 50


          Building 10BASE-T Networks with Hubs 51


  Ethernet UTP Cabling 52


          UTP Cables and RJ-45 Connectors 52


          Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 54


          UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX 55


          1000BASE-T Cabling 58


  Improving Performance by Using Switches Instead of Hubs 58


  


          Increasing Available Bandwidth Using Switches 61


          Doubling Performance by Using Full-Duplex Ethernet 62


          Ethernet Layer 1 Summary 63


          Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 63


          Ethernet Addressing 64


          Ethernet Framing 65


          Identifying the Data Inside an Ethernet Frame 67


          Error Detection 68


  Exam Preparation Tasks 69


  Review All the Key Topics 69


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 69


  Definitions of Key Terms 69

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of WANs 71


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 71


  Foundation Topics 74


  OSI Layer 1 for Point-to-Point WANs 74


          WAN Connections from the Customer Viewpoint 77


          WAN Cabling Standards 78


          Clock Rates, Synchronization, DCE, and DTE 80


          Building a WAN Link in a Lab 81


          Link Speeds Offered by Telcos 82


  OSI Layer 2 for Point-to-Point WANs 83


          HDLC 83


          Point-to-Point Protocol 85


          Point-to-Point WAN Summary 85


  Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Services 86


          The Scaling Benefits of Packet Switching 86


          Frame Relay Basics 87


  Exam Preparation Tasks 91


  Review All the Key Topics 91


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 91


  Definitions of Key Terms 91

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of IP Addressing and Routing 93


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 93


  Foundation Topics 98


  Overview of Network Layer Functions 98


          Routing (Forwarding) 99


          PC1's Logic: Sending Data to a Nearby Router 100


          R1 and R2's Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 100


          R3's Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 100


          Network Layer Interaction with the Data Link Layer 101


          IP Packets and the IP Header 102


          Network Layer (Layer 3) Addressing 103


          Routing Protocols 104


          IP Addressing 105


          IP Addressing Definitions 105


          How IP Addresses Are Grouped 106


          Classes of Networks 107


          The Actual Class A, B, and C Network Numbers 109


          IP Subnetting 110


  IP Routing 114


          Host Routing 114


          Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 115


  IP Routing Protocols 118


  Network Layer Utilities 121


          Address Resolution Protocol and the Domain Name System 121


          DNS Name Resolution 122


          The ARP Process 122


          Address Assignment and DHCP 123


          ICMP Echo and the ping Command 125


  Exam Preparation Tasks 126


  Review All the Key Topics 126


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 127


  Definitions of Key Terms 127

Chapter 6 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security 129


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 129


  Foundation Topics 133


  TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 133


          Transmission Control Protocol 134


          Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 135


          Popular TCP/IP Applications 138


          Error Recovery (Reliability) 140


          Flow Control Using Windowing 141


          Connection Establishment and Termination 142


          Data Segmentation and Ordered Data Transfer 144


          User Datagram Protocol 145


  TCP/IP Applications 146


          QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 146


          The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 149


          Universal Resource Locators 150


          Finding the Web Server Using DNS 150


          Transferring Files with HTTP 152


  Network Security 153


          Perspectives on the Sources and Types of Threats 154


          Firewalls and the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 158


          Anti-x 160


          Intrusion Detection and Prevention 160


          Virtual Private Networks (VPN) 161


  Exam Preparation Tasks 163


  Review All the Key Topics 163


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 163


  Definitions of Key Terms 163

Part II LAN Switching 165

Chapter 7 Ethernet LAN Switching Concepts 167


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 167


  Foundation Topics 171


  LAN Switching Concepts 171


          Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 171


          Switching Logic 174


          The Forward Versus Filter Decision 175


          How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 177


          Flooding Frames 178


          Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 179


          Internal Processing on Cisco Switches 180


          LAN Switching Summary 182


  LAN Design Considerations 183


          Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 183


          Collision Domains 183


          Broadcast Domains 184


          The Impact of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design 185


          Virtual LANs (VLAN) 187


          Campus LAN Design Terminology 188


          Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 191


  Exam Preparation Tasks 194


  Review All the Key Topics 194


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 194


  Definitions of Key Terms 195

Chapter 8 Operating Cisco LAN Switches 197


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 197


  Foundation Topics 200


  Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 200


          Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 201


          Switch Status from LEDs 202


          Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 205


          CLI Access from the Console 206


          Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 208


          Password Security for CLI Access 208


          User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 210


          CLI Help Features 211


          The debug and show Commands 213


  Configuring Cisco IOS Software 214


          Configuration Submodes and Contexts 215


          Storing Switch Configuration Files 217


          Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 220


          Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 221


  Exam Preparation Tasks 226


  Review All the Key Topics 226


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 226


  Definitions of Key Terms 226


  Command References 226

Chapter 9 Ethernet Switch Configuration 231


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 231


  Foundation Topics 235


  Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 235


          Securing the Switch CLI 235


          Configuring Simple Password Security 236


          Configuring Usernames and Secure Shell (SSH) 239


          Password Encryption 242


          The Two Enable Mode Passwords 244


          Console and vty Settings 245


          Banners 245


          History Buffer Commands 246


          The logging synchronous and exec-timeout Commands 247


  LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 248


          Configuring the Switch IP Address 248


          Configuring Switch Interfaces 251


          Port Security 253


          VLAN Configuration 256


          Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 259


  Exam Preparation Tasks 261


  Review All the Key Topics 261


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 261


  Definitions of Key Terms 262


  Command References 262

Chapter 10 Ethernet Switch Troubleshooting 267


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 267


  Foundation Topics 271


  Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 271


          Attacking Sim Questions 271


          Simlet Questions 272


          Multiple-Choice Questions 273


          Approaching Questions with an Organized Troubleshooting Process 273


          Isolating Problems at Layer 3, and Then at Layers 1 and 2 275


          Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 276


          Verifying the Network Topology with Cisco Discovery Protocol 277


          Analyzing Layer 1 and 2 Interface Status 282


          Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 282


          Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 284


          Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 287


  Analyzing the Layer 2 Forwarding Path with the MAC Address Table 289


          Analyzing the Forwarding Path 292


          Port Security and Filtering 293


  Exam Preparation Tasks 295


  Review All the Key Topics 295


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 295


  Definitions of Key Terms 295


  Command References 295

Chapter 11 Wireless LANs 299


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 299


  Foundation Topics 302


  Wireless LAN Concepts 302


          Comparisons with Ethernet LANs 302


          Wireless LAN Standards 304


          Modes of 802.11 Wireless LANs 305


          Wireless Transmissions (Layer 1) 307


          Wireless Encoding and Nonoverlapping DSSS Channels 309


          Wireless Interference 311


          Coverage Area, Speed, and Capacity 311


          Media Access (Layer 2) 314


  Deploying WLANs 315


          Wireless LAN Implementation Checklist 315


          Step 1: Verify the Existing Wired Network 316


          Step 2: Install and Configure the AP's Wired and IP Details 317


          Step 3: Configure the AP's WLAN Details 317


          Step 4: Install and Configure One Wireless Client 318


          Step 5: Verify That the WLAN Works from the Client 319


  Wireless LAN Security 320


          WLAN Security Issues 320


          The Progression of WLAN Security Standards 322


          Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) 322


          SSID Cloaking and MAC Filtering 323


          The Cisco Interim Solution Between WEP and 802.11i 324


          Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) 325


          IEEE 802.11i and WPA-2 325


  Exam Preparation Tasks 327


  Review All the Key Topics 327


          Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 327


          Definitions of Key Terms 327

Part III IP Routing 329

Chapter 12 IP Addressing and Subnetting 331


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 331


  Foundation Topics 336


  Exam Preparation Tools for Subnetting 336


          Suggested Subnetting Preparation Plan 337


          More Practice Using a Subnet Calculator 338


  IP Addressing and Routing 339


          IP Addressing Review 339


          Public and Private Addressing 341


          IP Version 6 Addressing 342


          IP Subnetting Review 343


          IP Routing Review 345


  Math Operations Used When Subnetting 347


          Converting IP Addresses and Masks from Decimal to Binary and Back Again 347


          Performing a Boolean AND Operation 349


          Prefix Notation/CIDR Notation 351


          Binary Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix Notation 352


          Decimal Process to Convert Between Dotted Decimal and Prefix


          Notation 353


          Practice Suggestions 355


  Analyzing and Choosing Subnet Masks 355


          Analyzing the Subnet Mask in an Existing Subnet Design 356


          The Three Parts: Network, Subnet, and Host 356


          Binary Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 357


          Decimal Process: Finding the Number of Network, Subnet, and Host Bits 358


          Determining the Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts Per Subnet 359


          Number of Subnets: Subtract 2, or Not? 360


          Practice Examples for Analyzing Subnet Masks 361


          Choosing a Subnet Mask that Meets Design Requirements 362


          Finding the Only Possible Mask 363


          Finding Multiple Possible Masks 365


          Choosing the Mask that Maximizes the Number of Subnets or Hosts 366


          Practice Suggestions 367


  Analyzing Existing Subnets 368


          Finding the Subnet Number: Binary 368


          Finding the Subnet Number: Binary Shortcut 371


          Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 372


          Finding the Range of Valid IP Addresses in a Subnet 375


          Finding the Subnet, Broadcast Address, and Range of Addresses: Decimal


          Process 377


          Decimal Process with Easy Masks 377


          Decimal Process with Difficult Masks 378


          Finding the Broadcast Address: Decimal 381


          Summary of Decimal Processes to Find the Subnet, Broadcast, and Range 382


          Practice Suggestions 383


  Design: Choosing the Subnets of a Classful Network 384


          Finding All Subnets with Fewer Than 8 Subnet Bits 384


          Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 388


          Practice Suggestions 389


          Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 389


          More Practice Suggestions 393


  Exam Preparation Tasks 394


  Review All the Key Topics 394


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 396


  Definitions of Key Terms 396


  Read Appendix F Scenario 1, Part A 396


  Subnetting Questions and Processes 396

Chapter 13 Operating Cisco Routers 399


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 399


  Foundation Topics 403


  Installing Cisco Routers 403


          Installing Enterprise Routers 403


          Cisco Integrated Services Routers 405


          Physical Installation 406


          Installing Internet Access Routers 407


          A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and


          Cable Modem 407


          A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and


          DSL Modem 408


          Regarding the SOHO Devices Used in This Book 409


  Cisco Router IOS CLI 409


          Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 410


          Router Interfaces 411


          Interface Status Codes 413


          Router Interface IP Addresses 414


          Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 415


          Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 417


          Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 417


  Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process 420


          Upgrading a Cisco IOS Software Image into Flash Memory 420


          The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 423


          The Three Router Operating Systems 425


          The Configuration Register 425


          How a Router Chooses Which OS to Load 426


          The show version Command and Seeing the Configuration Register's


          Value 429


  Exam Preparation Tasks 431


  Review All the Key Topics 431


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 431


  Definitions of Key Terms 432


  Read Appendix F Scenario 2 432


  Command References 432

Chapter 14 Routing Protocol Concepts and Configuration 435


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 435


  Foundation Topics 439


    Connected and Static Routes 439


          Connected Routes 439


          Static Routes 442


          Extended ping Command 444


          Default Routes 446


          Routing Protocol Overview 448


          RIP-2 Basic Concepts 449


          Comparing and Contrasting IP Routing Protocols 450


          Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 451


          Routing Protocol Types/Algorithms 452


          Metrics 452


          Autosummarization and Manual Summarization 454


          Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 454


          Convergence 455


          Miscellaneous Comparison Points 455


          Summary of Interior Routing Protocols 455


  Configuring and Verifying RIP-2 456


          RIP-2 Configuration 456


          Sample RIP Configuration 457


          RIP-2 Verification 458


          Interpreting the Output of the show ip route Command 460


          Administrative Distance 461


          The show ip protocols Command 462


          Examining RIP Messages with debug 464


  Exam Preparation Tasks 467


  Review All the Key Topics 467


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 467


  Definitions of Key Terms 468


  Command References 468

Chapter 15 Troubleshooting IP Routing 471


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 471


  Foundation Topics 475


  IP Troubleshooting Tips and Tools 475


          IP Addressing 475


          Avoiding Reserved IP Addresses 475


          One Subnet, One Mask, for Each LAN 476


          Summary of IP Addressing Tips 478


          Host Networking Commands 478


          Troubleshooting Host Routing Problems 482


          Finding the Matching Route on a Router 483


          Troubleshooting Commands 485


          The show ip arp Command 485


          The traceroute Command 486


          Telnet and Suspend 487


  A Routing Troubleshooting Scenario 491


          Scenario Part A: Tasks and Questions 491


          Scenario Part A: Answers 494


          Scenario Part B: Analyze Packet/Frame Flow 495


          Scenario Part B: Answers 496


          Scenario Part B: Question 1 497


          Scenario Part B: Question 2 498


          Scenario Part B: Question 3 499


          Scenario Part B: Question 4 501


          Scenario Part B: Question 5 501


          Scenario Part B: Question 6 502


          Scenario Part B: Question 7 503


          Scenario Part C: Analyze Connected Routes 503


          Scenario Part C: Answers 503


  Exam Preparation Tasks 505


  Review All the Key Topics 505


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 506


  Command Reference 506

Part IV Wide-Area Networks 509


  Chapter 16 WAN Concepts 511


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 511


  Foundation Topics 514


          WAN Technologies 514


          Perspectives on the PSTN 514


          Analog Modems 517


          Digital Subscriber Line 519


          DSL Types, Speeds, and Distances 521


          DSL Summary 522


          Cable Internet 523


          Comparison of Remote-Access Technologies 525


          ATM 525


          Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching 527


          Ethernet as a WAN Service 527


  IP Services for Internet Access 528


          Address Assignment on the Internet Access Router 529


          Routing for the Internet Access Router 530


          NAT and PAT 531


  Exam Preparation Tasks 536


  Review All the Key Topics 536


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 536


  Definitions of Key Terms 537

Chapter 17 WAN Configuration 539


  "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 539


  Foundation Topics 542


          Configuring Point-to-Point WANs 542


          Configuring HDLC 542


          Configuring PPP 545


  Configuring and Troubleshooting Internet Access Routers 546


          Internet Access Router: Configuration Steps 547


          Step 1: Establish IP Connectivity 547


          Step 2: Install and Access SDM 548


          Step 3: Configure DHCP and PAT 549


          Step 4: Plan for DHCP Services 554


          Step 5: Configure the DHCP Server 556


          Internet Access Router Verification 557


  Exam Preparation Tasks 560


  Review All the Key Topics 560


  Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 560


  Definitions of Key Terms 560


  Command References 560

Part V Final Preparation 563

Chapter 18 Final Preparation 565


  Tools for Final Preparation 565


          Exam Engine and Questions on the CD 565


          Install the Software from the CD 566


          Activate and Download the Practice Exam 566


          Activating Other Exams 567


          The Cisco CCNA Prep Center 567


          Subnetting Videos, Reference Pages, and Practice Problems 568


          Scenarios 568


  Study Plan 569


          Recall the Facts 569


          Practice Subnetting 570


          Build Troubleshooting Skills Using Scenarios 571


          Use the Exam Engine 571


          Choosing Study or Simulation Mode 572


          Choosing the Right Exam Option 572


  Summary 573

Part VI Appendixes 575


  Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes 577


  Chapter 2 577


  Chapter 3 578


  Chapter 4 578


  Chapter 5 579


  Chapter 6 579


  Chapter 7 580


  Chapter 8 581


  Chapter 9 581


  Chapter 10 582


  Chapter 11 583


  Chapter 12 584


  Chapter 13 585


  Chapter 14 586


  Chapter 15 587


  Chapter 16 588


  Chapter 17 589

Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 591

Appendix C ICND1 Exam Updates: Version 1.0 595

Glossary 599