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CCNA Security Official Exam Certification Guide (Exam 640-553)

by: Michael Watkins, Kevin Wallace

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Publisher: CISCO PRESS,04.08.08

Category: CCNA Level:

ISBN: 1587202204
ISBN13: 9781587202209

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Features and Benefits


Preparation and practice for the ALL NEW CCNA Security exam from the all-time best selling CCNA self-study test preparation series


  * All new CCNA Security coverage from theNo. 1 selling CCNA product line


  * Includes coverage of all CCNA Security topics on the test, as well as a CD testing engine for exam practice and preparation


  * Expert guidance from best-selling author Kevin Wallace and Michael Watkins reinforces conceptual knowledge, hones configuration skills, and better prepares you for the CCNA Security exam



Table of Contents


Foreword

Introduction

Part I Network Security Concepts

Chapter 1 Understanding Network Security Principles

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Exploring Security Fundamentals


  Why Network Security Is a Necessity


          Types of Threats


          Scope of the Challenge


          Nonsecured Custom Applications


  The Three Primary Goals of Network Security


          Confidentiality


          Integrity


          Availability


  Categorizing Data


          Classification Models


          Classification Roles


  Controls in a Security Solution


  Responding to a Security Incident


  Legal and Ethical Ramifications


          Legal Issues to Consider

Understanding the Methods of Network Attacks


  Vulnerabilities


  Potential Attackers


  The Mind-set of a Hacker


  Defense in Depth


  Understanding IP Spoofing


          Launching a Remote IP Spoofing Attack with IP Source Routing


          Launching a Local IP Spoofing Attack Using a Man-in-the-Middle Attack


          Protecting Against an IP Spoofing Attack


  Understanding Confidentiality Attacks


  Understanding Integrity Attacks


  Understanding Availability Attacks


  Best-Practice Recommendations

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 2 Developing a Secure Network

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Increasing Operations Security


  System Development Life Cycle 49


          Initiation 49


          Acquisition and Development 49


          Implementation 50


          Operations and Maintenance 50


          Disposition 51


  Operations Security Overview 51


  Evaluating Network Security 52


          Nmap 54


  Disaster Recovery Considerations 55


          Types of Disruptions 56


          Types of Backup Sites 56

Constructing a Comprehensive Network Security Policy 57


  Security Policy Fundamentals 57


  Security Policy Components 58


          Governing Policy 58


          Technical Policies 58


          End-User Policies 59


          More-Detailed Documents 59


  Security Policy Responsibilities 59


  Risk Analysis, Management, and Avoidance 60


          Quantitative Analysis 60


          Qualitative Analysis 61


          Risk Analysis Benefits 61


          Risk Analysis Example: Threat Identification 61


          Managing and Avoiding Risk 62


  Factors Contributing to a Secure Network Design 62


          Design Assumptions 63


          Minimizing Privileges 63


          Simplicity Versus Complexity 64


  User Awareness and Training 64

Creating a Cisco Self-Defending Network 66


  Evolving Security Threats 66


  Constructing a Cisco Self-Defending Network 67


          Cisco Security Management Suite 69


  Cisco Integrated Security Products 70

Exam Preparation Tasks 74

Review All the Key Topics 74

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 75

Definition of Key Terms 75

Chapter 3 Defending the Perimeter 77

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 77

Foundation Topics 81

ISR Overview and Providing Secure Administrative Access 81


  IOS Security Features 81


  Cisco Integrated Services Routers 81


          Cisco 800 Series 82


          Cisco 1800 Series 83


          Cisco 2800 Series 84


          Cisco 3800 Series 84


          ISR Enhanced Features 85


  Password-Protecting a Router 86


  Limiting the Number of Failed Login Attempts 92


  Setting a Login Inactivity Timer 92


  Configuring Privilege Levels 93


  Creating Command-Line Interface Views 93


  Protecting Router Files 95


  Enabling Cisco IOS Login Enhancements for Virtual Connections 96


  Creating a Banner Message 98

Cisco Security Device Manager Overview 99


  Introducing SDM 99


  Preparing to Launch Cisco SDM


  Exploring the Cisco SDM Interface

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 4 Configuring AAA

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Configuring AAA Using the Local User Database


  Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting


  AAA for Cisco Routers


  Router Access Authentication


  Using AAA to Configure Local User Database Authentication


          Defining a Method List


          Setting AAA Authentication for Login


          Configuring AAA Authentication on Serial Interfaces Running PPP


          Using the aaa authentication enable default Command


          Implementing the aaa authorization Command


          Working with the aaa accounting Command


  Using the CLI to Troubleshoot AAA for Cisco Routers


  Using Cisco SDM to Configure AAA

Configuring AAA Using Cisco Secure ACS


  Overview of Cisco Secure ACS for Windows


          Additional Features of Cisco Secure ACS 4.0 for Windows


  Cisco Secure ACS 4.0 for Windows Installation


  Overview of TACACS+ and RADIUS


          TACACS+ Authentication


          Command Authorization with TACACS+


          TACACS+ Attributes


          Authentication and Authorization with RADIUS


          RADIUS Message Types


          RADIUS Attributes


          Features of RADIUS


  Configuring TACACS+


          Using the CLI to Configure AAA Login Authentication on Cisco Routers


          Configuring Cisco Routers to Use TACACS+ Using the Cisco SDM


          Defining the AAA Servers

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 5 Securing the Router

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Locking Down the Router


  Identifying Potentially Vulnerable Router Interfaces and Services


  Locking Down a Cisco IOS Router


          AutoSecure


          Cisco SDM One-Step Lockdown

Using Secure Management and Reporting


  Planning for Secure Management and Reporting


  Secure Management and Reporting Architecture


  Configuring Syslog Support


  Securing Management Traffic with SNMPv3


  Enabling Secure Shell on a Router


  Using Cisco SDM to Configure Management Features


          Configuring Syslog Logging with Cisco SDM


          Configuring SNMP with Cisco SDM


          Configuring NTP with Cisco SDM


          Configuring SSH with Cisco SDM

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Part II Constructing a Secure Infrastructure

Chapter 6 Securing Layer 2 Devices

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Defending Against Layer 2 Attacks


  Review of Layer 2 Switch Operation


  Basic Approaches to Protecting Layer 2 Switches


  Preventing VLAN Hopping


          Switch Spoofing


          Double Tagging


  Protecting Against an STP Attack


  Combating DHCP Server Spoofing


  Using Dynamic ARP Inspection


  Mitigating CAM Table Overflow Attacks


  Spoofing MAC Addresses


  Additional Cisco Catalyst Switch Security Features


          Using the SPAN Feature with IDS


          Enforcing Security Policies with VACLs


          Isolating Traffic Within a VLAN Using Private VLANs


          Traffic Policing


          Notifying Network Managers of CAM Table Updates


  Port Security Configuration


  Configuration Recommendations

Cisco Identity-Based Networking Services


  Introduction to Cisco IBNS


  Overview of IEEE 802.1x


  Extensible Authentication Protocols


          EAP-MD5


          EAP-TLS


          PEAP (MS-CHAPv2)


          EAP-FAST


  Combining IEEE 802.1x with Port Security Features


  Using IEEE 802.1x for VLAN Assignment


  Configuring and Monitoring IEEE 802.1x

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 7 Implementing Endpoint Security

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Examining Endpoint Security


  Defining Endpoint Security


          Examining Operating System Vulnerabilities


          Examining Application Vulnerabilities


  Understanding the Threat of Buffer Overflows


          Buffer Overflow Defined


          The Anatomy of a Buffer Overflow Exploit


          Understanding the Types of Buffer Overflows


          Additional Forms of Attack

Securing Endpoints with Cisco Technologies


  Understanding IronPort


          The Architecture Behind IronPort


  Examining the Cisco NAC Appliance


  Working with the Cisco Security Agent


          Understanding Cisco Security Agent Interceptors


          Examining Attack Response with the Cisco Security Agent


  Best Practices for Securing Endpoints


          Application Guidelines


          Apply Application Protection Methods

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 8 Providing SAN Security

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Overview of SAN Operations


  Fundamentals of SANs


  Organizational Benefits of SAN Usage


  Understanding SAN Basics


  Fundamentals of SAN Security


          Classes of SAN Attacks

Implementing SAN Security Techniques


  Using LUN Masking to Defend Against Attacks


  Examining SAN Zoning Strategies


          Examining Soft and Hard Zoning


  Understanding World Wide Names


  Defining Virtual SANs


          Combining VSANs and Zones


  Identifying Port Authentication Protocols


          Understanding DHCHAP


          CHAP in Securing SAN Devices


  Working with Fibre Channel Authentication Protocol


  Understanding Fibre Channel Password Authentication Protocol


  Assuring Data Confidentiality in SANs


          Incorporating Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)


          Providing Security with Fibre Channel Security Protocol

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 9 Exploring Secure Voice Solutions

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Defining Voice Fundamentals


  Defining VoIP


  The Need for VoIP


  VoIP Network Components


  VoIP Protocols

Identifying Common Voice Vulnerabilities


  Attacks Targeting Endpoints


  VoIP Spam


  Vishing and Toll Fraud


  SIP Attack Targets

Securing a VoIP Network


  Protecting a VoIP Network with Auxiliary VLANs


  Protecting a VoIP Network with Security Appliances


  Hardening Voice Endpoints and Application Servers


  Summary of Voice Attack Mitigation Techniques

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 10 Using Cisco IOS Firewalls to Defend the Network

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Exploring Firewall Technology


  The Role of Firewalls in Defending Networks


  The Advance of Firewall Technology


  Transparent Firewalls


  Application Layer Firewalls


          Benefits of Using Application Layer Firewalls


          Working with Application Layer Firewalls


          Application Firewall Limitations


  Static Packet-Filtering Firewalls


  Stateful Packet-Filtering Firewalls


          Stateful Packet Filtering and the State Table


          Disadvantages of Stateful Filtering


          Uses of Stateful Packet-Filtering Firewalls


  Application Inspection Firewalls


          Application Inspection Firewall Operation


          Effective Use of an Application Inspection Firewall


  Overview of the Cisco ASA Adaptive Security Appliance


  The Role of Firewalls in a Layered Defense Strategy


  Creating an Effective Firewall Policy

Using ACLs to Construct Static Packet Filters


  The Basics of ACLs


  Cisco ACL Configuration


          Working with Turbo ACLs


          Developing ACLs


  Using the CLI to Apply ACLs to the Router Interface


  Considerations When Creating ACLs


  Filtering Traffic with ACLs


  Preventing IP Spoofing with ACLs


  Restricting ICMP Traffic with ACLs


  Configuring ACLs to Filter Router Service Traffic


          vty Filtering


          SNMP Service Filtering


          RIPv2 Route Filtering


  Grouping ACL Functions

Implementing a Cisco IOS Zone-Based Firewall


  Understanding Cisco IOS Firewalls


          Traffic Filtering


          Traffic Inspection


          The Role of Alerts and Audit Trails


          Classic Firewall Process


          SPI and CBAC


  Examining the Principles Behind Zone-Based Firewalls


          Changes to Firewall Configuration


          Zone Membership Rules


          Understanding Security Zones


          Zones and Inspection


          Security Zone Restrictions


          Working with Zone Pairs


          Security Zone Firewall Policies


          Class Maps


  Verifying Zone-Based Firewall Configuration

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 11 Using Cisco IOS IPS to Secure the Network

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Examining IPS Technologies


  IDS Versus IPS


  IDS and IPS Device Categories


          Detection Methods


          Network-Based Versus Host-Based IPS


          Deploying Network-Based and Host-Based Solutions


  IDS and IPS Appliances


          Cisco IDS 4215 Sensor


          Cisco IPS 4240 Sensor


          Cisco IPS 4255 Sensor


          Cisco IPS 4260 Sensor


  Signatures


          Exploit Signatures


          Connection Signatures


          String Signatures


          Denial-of-Service Signatures


  Signature Definition Files


  Alarms

Using SDM to Configure Cisco IOS IPS


  Launching the Intrusion Prevention Wizard


  IPS Policies Wizard


  Creating IPS Rules


  Manipulating Global IPS Settings


  Signature Configuration

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Part III Extending Security and Availability with Cryptography and VPNs

Chapter 12 Designing a Cryptographic Solution

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Introducing Cryptographic Services


  Understanding Cryptology


          Cryptography Through the Ages


          The Substitution Cipher


          The Vigenère Cipher


          Transposition Ciphers


          Working with the One-Time Pad


          The Encryption Process


          Cryptanalysis


          Understanding the Features of Encryption Algorithms


  Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms


          Encryption Algorithms and Keys


          Symmetric Encryption Algorithms


          Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms


  The Difference Between Block and Stream Ciphers


          Block Ciphers


          Stream Ciphers

Exploring Symmetric Encryption


  Functionality of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms


          Key Lengths


  Features and Functions of DES


          Working with the DES Key


          Modes of Operation for DES


          Working with DES Stream Cipher Modes


          Usage Guidelines for Working with DES


          Understanding How 3DES Works


          Encrypting with 3DES


  AES


          The Rijndael Cipher


          Comparing AES and 3DES


          Availability of AES in the Cisco Product Line


  SEAL


          SEAL Restrictions


  The Rivest Ciphers

Understanding Security Algorithms


  Selecting an Encryption Algorithm


  Understanding Cryptographic Hashes


  Working with Hashing


  Designing Key Management


          Components of Key Management


          Understanding Keyspaces


          Issues Related to Key Length


  SSL VPNs


  Establishing an SSL Tunnel

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 13 Implementing Digital Signatures

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Examining Hash Algorithms


  Exploring Hash Algorithms and HMACs


          Anatomy of a Hash Function


          Application of Hash Functions


          Cryptographic Hash Functions


          Application of Cryptographic Hashes


          HMAC Explained


  MD5 Features and Functionality


          Origins of MD5


          Vulnerabilities of MD5


          Usage of MD5


  SHA-1 Features and Functionality


          Overview of SHA-1


          Vulnerabilities of SHA-1


          Usage of SHA-1

Using Digital Signatures


  Understanding Digital Signatures


          Digital Signature Scheme


          Authentication and Integrity


  Examining RSA Signatures


          Exploring the History of RSA


          Understanding How RSA Works


          Encrypting and Decrypting Messages with RSA


          Signing Messages with RSA


          Vulnerabilities of RSA


  Exploring the Digital Signature Standard


          Using the DSA Algorithm

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 14 Exploring PKI and Asymmetric Encryption

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Understanding Asymmetric Algorithms


  Exploring Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms


          Using Public-Key Encryption to Achieve Confidentiality


          Providing Authentication with a Public Key


  Understanding the Features of the RSA Algorithm


          Working with RSA Digital Signatures


          Guidelines for Working with RSA


  Examining the Features of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm


          Steps of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm

Working with a PKI


  Examining the Principles Behind a PKI


          Understanding PKI Terminology


          Components of a PKI


          Classes of Certificates


          Examining the PKI Topology of a Single Root CA


          Examining the PKI Topology of Hierarchical CAs


          Examining the PKI Topology of Cross-Certified CAs


          Understanding PKI Usage and Keys


          Working with PKI Server Offload


  Understanding PKI Standards


          Understanding X.509v3


          Understanding Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS)


          Understanding Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP)


  Exploring the Role of Certificate Authorities and Registration Authorities in a PKI


          Examining Identity Management


          Retrieving the CA Certificate


          Understanding the Certificate Enrollment Process


          Examining Authentication Using Certificates


          Examining Features of Digital Certificates and CAs


          Understanding the Caveats of Using a PKI


          Understanding How Certificates Are Employed

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Chapter 15 Building a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Solution

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Exploring the Basics of IPsec


  Introducing Site-to-Site VPNs


  Overview of IPsec


  IKE Modes and Phases


  Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload


  Cisco VPN Product Offerings


          Cisco VPN-Enabled Routers and Switches


          Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrators


          Cisco ASA 5500 Series Appliances


          Cisco 500 Series PIX Security Appliances


          Hardware Acceleration Modules


  VPN Design Considerations and Recommendations


          Best-Practice Recommendations for Identity and IPsec Access Control


          Best-Practice Recommendations for IPsec


          Best-Practice Recommendations for Network Address Translation


          Best-Practice Recommendations for Selecting a Single-Purpose Versus


          Multipurpose Device

Constructing an IPsec Site-to-Site VPN


  The Five Steps in the Life of an IPsec Site-to-Site VPN


  The Five Steps of Configuring an IPsec Site-to-Site VPN


  Configuring an IKE Phase 1 Tunnel


  Configuring an IKE Phase 2 Tunnel


  Applying Crypto Maps

Using Cisco SDM to Configure IPsec on a Site-to-Site VPN


  Introduction to the Cisco SDM VPN Wizard


  Quick Setup


  Step-by-Step Setup


          Configuring Connection Settings


          Selecting an IKE Proposal


          Selecting a Transform Set


          Selecting Traffic to Protect in the IPsec Tunnel


          Applying the Generated Configuration


          Monitoring the Configuration

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definition of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Part IV Final Preparation

Chapter 16 Final Preparation

Exam Engine and Questions on the CD


  Install the Software from the CD


  Activate and Download the Practice Exam


  Activating Other Exams

Study Plan


  Recall the Facts


  Use the Exam Engine


          Choosing Study or Simulation Mode


          Passing Scores for the IINS Exam

Part V Appendixes

Appendix A Answers to "Do I Know This Already?" Questions

Appendix B Glossary

Appendix C CCNA Security Exam Updates: Version 1.0

Appendix D Memory Tables (CD only)

Appendix E Memory Tables Answer Key (CD only)

1587202204


    TOC


  5/19/2008



About the Authors


Michael Watkins, CCNA/CCNP/CCVP/CCSP, is a full-time senior technical instructor with SkillSoft Corporation. With 13 years of network management, training, and consulting experience, he has worked with organizations such as Kraft Foods, Johnson and Johnson, Raytheon, and the U.S. Air Force to help them implement and learn about the latest network technologies. In addition to holding more than 20 industry certifications in the areas of networking and programming technologies, he holds a bachelor of arts degree from Wabash College.

Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945, is a certified Cisco instructor working full time for SkillSoft, where he teaches courses in the Cisco CCSP, CCVP, and CCNP tracks. With 19 years of Cisco networking experience, he has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University. He holds a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky. He is also a CCVP, CCSP, CCNP, and CCDP, with multiple Cisco security and IP communications specializations.