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CCNA Security Exam Cram (Exam IINS 640-553)

by: Eric Stewart

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Publisher: QUE,24.11.08

Category: CCNA Level:

ISBN: 0789738007
ISBN13: 9780789738004

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Features and Benefits


Get certified on the ALL NEW CCNA Security certification from Cisco with the most popular late-stage study product from Exam Cram

Master all the objectives in the CCNA Security IINS exam 640-553
Use the popular collection of exam strategies, practice exams and lab exercises, including the Cram Sheet, that have made Exam Cram the most popular late-stage study tool for IT certifications
Written by expert trainers with years of experience in preparing students for Cisco exams

Table of Contents


Introduction... 1

  Organization and Elements of This Book. 1

  Contacting the Author.. 4

Self Assessment... 5

  Who Is a CCNA Security?.. 5

  The Ideal CCNA Security Candidate. 6

  Put Yourself to the Test.. 8

  Exam Topics for 640-553 IINS (Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security).. 10

  Strategy for Using This Exam Cram. 12

Part I: Network Security Architecture

Chapter 1: Network Insecurity... 15

  Exploring Network Security Basics and the Need for Network Security.. 16

          The Threats.. 16

          Other Reasons for Network Insecurity 18

          The CIA Triad.. 18

          Data Classification.. 21

          Security Controls.. 22

          Incident Response.. 25

          Laws and Ethics.. 26

  Exploring the Taxonomy of Network Attacks. 29

          Adversaries.. 30

          How Do Hackers Think?. 32

          Concepts of Defense in Depth. 32

          IP Spoofing Attacks.. 34

          Attacks Against Confidentiality. 36

          Attacks Against Integrity. 38

          Attacks Against Availability. 42

  Best Practices to Thwart Network Attacks. 45

          Administrative Controls. 45

          Technical Controls.. 46

          Physical Controls.. 46

  Exam Prep Questions.. 47

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 50

Chapter 2: Building a Secure Network Using Security Controls. 51

  Defining Operations Security Needs. 52

          Cisco System Development Life Cycle for Secure Networks 52

          Operations Security Principles. 54

          Network Security Testing. 55

          Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning 59

  Establishing a Comprehensive Network Security Policy 61

          Defining Assets.. 62

          The Need for a Security Policy. 63

          Policies.. 64

          Standards, Guidelines, and Procedures 65

          Who Is Responsible for the Security Policy? 66

          Risk Management.. 67

                  Principles of Secure Network Design 70

  Examining Cisco's Model of the Self-Defending Network 73

          Where Is the Network Perimeter?. 73

          Building a Cisco Self-Defending Network 74

          Components of the Cisco Self-Defending Network 75

          Cisco Integrated Security Portfolio. 79

  Exam Prep Questions.. 81

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 84

Part II: Perimeter Security

Chapter 3: Security at the Network Perimeter.. 87

  Cisco IOS Security Features.. 88

          Where Do You Deploy an IOS Router? 88

          Cisco ISR Family and Features. 90

  Securing Administrative Access to Cisco Routers 91

          Review Line Interfaces. 92

          Password Best Practices. 94

          Configuring Passwords. 94

          Setting Multiple Privilege Levels. 97

          Configuring Role-Based Access to the CLI 98

          Configuring the Cisco IOS Resilient Configuration Feature 101

          Protecting Virtual Logins from Attack 102

          Configuring Banner Messages. 104

  Introducing Cisco SDM.. 105

          Files Required to Run Cisco SDM from the Router 106

          Using Cisco SDM Express. 107

          Launching Cisco SDM. 108

          Cisco SDM Smart Wizards. 110

          Advanced Configuration with SDM. 111

          Cisco SDM Monitor Mode. 113

  Configuring Local Database AAA on a Cisco Router 114

          Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) 114

          Two Reasons for Implementing AAA on Cisco Routers 114

          Cisco's Implementation of AAA for Cisco Routers 115

          Tasks to Configure Local Database AAA on a Cisco Router 116

          Additional Local Database AAA CLI Commands 120

  Configuring External AAA on a Cisco Router Using
Cisco Secure ACS.. 121

          Why Use Cisco Secure ACS?. 123

          Cisco Secure ACS Features. 123

          Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Installation Requirements 124

          Cisco Secure ACS Solution Engine and Cisco Secure
ACS Express 5.0 Comparison. 125

          TACACS+ or RADIUS?. 125

          Prerequisites for Cisco Secure ACS 126

          Three Main Tasks for Setting Up External AAA 127

          Troubleshooting/Debugging Local AAA, RADIUS, and TACACS+.. 140

          AAA Configuration Snapshot. 141

  Exam Prep Questions.. 142

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 145

Chapter 4: Implementing Secure Management and Hardening the Router 147

  Planning for Secure Management and Reporting 148

          What to Log.. 149

          How to Log.. 150

          Reference Architecture for Secure Management and Reporting.. 151

          Secure Management and Reporting Guidelines 153

          Logging with Syslog.. 153

          Cisco Security MARS. 154

          Where to Send Log Messages. 154

          Log Message Levels. 155

          Log Message Format. 156

          Enabling Syslog Logging in SDM. 156

          Using SNMP.. 157

          Configuring the SSH Daemon. 161

          Configuring Time Features. 165

  Using Cisco SDM and CLI Tools to Lock Down the Router 167

          Router Services and Interface Vulnerabilities 167

          Performing a Security Audit. 172

  Exam Prep Questions.. 180

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 182

Part III: Augmenting Depth of Defense


Chapter 5: Using Cisco IOS Firewalls to Implement a Network Security Policy 185

  Examining and Defining Firewall Technologies 187

          What Is a Firewall?.. 188

          Characteristics of a Firewall. 189

          Firewall Advantages.. 189

          Firewall Disadvantages. 190

          Role of Firewalls in a Layered Defense Strategy 190

          Types of Firewalls.. 190

          Cisco Family of Firewalls. 201

          Firewall Implementation Best Practices 202

  Creating Static Packet Filters with ACLs. 203

          Threat Mitigation with ACLs. 203

          Inbound Versus Outbound. 203

          Identifying ACLs.. 205

          ACL Examples Using the CLI. 205

          ACL Guidelines.. 208

          Using the Cisco SDM to Configure ACLs 209

          Using ACLs to Filter Network Services 212

          Using ACLs to Mitigate IP Address Spoofing Attacks 213

          Using ACLs to Filter Other Common Services 216

  Cisco Zone-Based Policy Firewall Fundamentals 218

          Advantages of ZPF.. 220

          Features of ZPF.. 221

          ZPF Actions.. 221

          Zone Behavior.. 221

          Using the Cisco SDM Basic Firewall Wizard to
Configure ZPF.. 224

          Manually Configuring ZPF with the Cisco SDM 233

          Monitoring ZPF.. 238

  Exam Prep Questions.. 241

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 244

Chapter 6: Introducing Cryptographic Services.. 245

  Cryptology Overview.. 246

          Cryptanalysis.. 249

          Encryption Algorithm (Cipher) Desirable Features 251

          Symmetric Key Versus Asymmetric Key
Encryption Algorithms.. 251

          Block Versus Stream Ciphers. 254

          Which Encryption Algorithm Do I Choose? 255

          Cryptographic Hashing Algorithms. 256

          Principles of Key Management. 256

          Other Key Considerations. 257

          SSL VPNs.. 259

  Exploring Symmetric Key Encryption. 261

          DES... 263

          3DES.. 264

          AES... 265

          SEAL.. 266

          Rivest Ciphers (RC).. 267

  Exploring Cryptographic Hashing Algorithms and Digital Signatures.. 268

          HMACs.. 270

          Message Digest 5 (MD5). 271

          Secure Hashing Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) 272

          Digital Signatures.. 272

  Exploring Asymmetric Key Encryption and Public Key Infrastructure.. 275

          Encryption with Asymmetric Keys. 276

          Authentication with Asymmetric Keys 277

          Public Key Infrastructure Overview. 277

          PKI Topologies.. 278

          PKI and Usage Keys. 279

          PKI Server Offload and Registration Authorities (RAs) 280

          PKI Standards.. 280

          Certificate Enrollment Process. 282

          Certificate-Based Authentication. 283

          Certificate Applications. 284

  Exam Prep Questions.. 286

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 289

Chapter 7: Virtual Private Networks with IPsec.. 291

  Overview of VPN Technology.. 292

          Cisco VPN Products. 293

          VPN Benefits.. 293

          Site-to-Site VPNs.. 294

          Remote-Access VPNs. 295

          Cisco IOS SSL VPN. 296

          Cisco VPN Product Positioning. 297

          VPN Clients.. 299

          Hardware-Accelerated Encryption. 300

          IPsec Compared to SSL. 301

  Conceptualizing a Site-to-Site IPsec VPN. 302

          IPsec Components.. 302

          IPsec Strengths.. 306

          Constructing a VPN: Putting it Together 307

  Implementing IPsec on a Site-to-Site VPN Using the CLI 315

          Step 1: Ensure That Existing ACLs Are Compatible with the IPsec VPN.. 315

          Step 2: Create ISAKMP (IKE Phase I) Policy Set(s) 316

          Step 3: Configure IPsec Transform Set(s) 318

          Step 4: Create Crypto ACL Defining Traffic in the IPsec VPN.. 319

          Step 5: Create and Apply the Crypto Map (IPsec Tunnel Interface).. 320

          Verifying and Troubleshooting the IPsec VPN Using the CLI.. 321

  Implementing IPsec on a Site-to-Site VPN Using Cisco SDM 325

          Site-to-Site VPN Wizard Using Quick Setup 325

          Site-to-Site VPN Wizard Using Step-by-Step Setup 329

  Exam Prep Questions.. 337

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 339

Chapter 8: Network Security Using Cisco IOS IPS. 341

  Exploring IPS Technologies.. 342

          IDS Versus IPS.. 342

          IDS and IPS Categories. 343

          IPS Attack Responses. 347

          Event Management and Monitoring. 349

          Host IPS.. 351

          Network IPS.. 354

          HIPS and Network IPS Comparison 355

          Cisco IPS Appliances. 356

          IDS and IPS Signatures. 357

          Signature Alarms.. 359

          Best Practices for IPS Configuration 360

  Implementing Cisco IOS IPS.. 362

          Cisco IOS IPS Feature Blend. 362

          Cisco IOS IPS Primary Benefits. 362

          Cisco IOS IPS Signature Integration 363

          Configuring Cisco IOS IPS with the Cisco SDM 364

          Cisco IOS IPS CLI Configuration. 377

          Configuring IPS Signatures. 378

          SDEE and Syslog Logging Protocol Support 381

          Verifying IOS IPS Operation. 384

  Exam Prep Questions.. 387

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 390

Part IV: Security Inside the Perimeter


Chapter 9: Introduction to Endpoint, SAN, and Voice Security. 395

  Introducing Endpoint Security. 396

          Cisco's Host Security Strategy. 397

          Securing Software.. 397

          Endpoint Attacks.. 399

          Cisco Solutions to Secure Systems and Thwart Endpoint Attacks.. 403

          Endpoint Best Practices. 407

  Exploring SAN Security.. 407

          SAN Advantages.. 407

          SAN Technologies.. 408

          SAN Address Vulnerabilities. 408

          Virtual SANs (VSANs). 409

          SAN Security Strategies. 409

  Exploring Voice Security.. 411

          VoIP Components.. 411

          Threats to VoIP Endpoints. 413

          Fraud... 414

          SIP Vulnerabilities.. 414

          Mitigating VoIP Hacking. 415

  Exam Prep Questions.. 418

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 420

Chapter 10: Protecting Switch Infrastructure.. 421

  VLAN Hopping Attacks.. 422

          VLAN Hopping by Rogue Trunk. 423

          VLAN Hopping by Double-Tagging. 424

  STP Manipulation Attack.. 425

          STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: Portfast 426

          STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: BPDU Guard 427

          STP Manipulation Attack Mitigation: Root Guard 428

  CAM Table Overflow Attack.. 428

          CAM Table Overflow Attack Mitigation: Port Security 429

  MAC Address Spoofing Attack. 429

          MAC Address Spoofing Attack Mitigation: Port Security 429

  Configuring Port Security.. 429

          Port Security Basic Settings. 430

          Port Security Optional Settings. 430

          Port Security Verification. 433

  Miscellaneous Switch Security Features. 434

          Intrusion Notification.. 434

          Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN). 435

          Storm Control.. 436

  Switch Security Best Practices. 438

  Exam Prep Questions.. 439

  Answers to Exam Prep Questions. 440

Part V: Practice Exams and Answers


Practice Exam 1... 443

Answers to Practice Exam 1.. 461

Practice Exam 2... 471

Answers to Practice Exam 2.. 487

Part VI: Appendixes


Appendix A: What's on the CD-ROM.. 499

Appendix B: Need to Know More?... 503

TOC, 0789738007, 10/3/08



Welcome to CCNA Security Exam Cram! The fact that you are reading this means that you are interested in the CCNA Security certification that Cisco announced in July of 2008. Cisco has done a thorough job of revamping the certification path for the Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP), with the CCNA Security certification being the cornerstone upon which the CCSP certification depends. Implementing Cisco IOS Network Security (IINS) is the recommended training course for CCNA Security certification. If you already hold the prerequisite valid CCNA certification, passing the 640-553 IINS exam enables you to obtain the CCNA Security certification-likely to become one of the hottest certifications in IT. This book helps prepare you for that exam. The book assumes that you already have your CCNA certification or an equivalent level of knowledge. If you do not have a CCNA level of knowledge, you should consider putting down this book and first pursuing more robust fundamental training, such as a full CCNA course book or a recommended CCNA course. And remember that CCNA is a prerequisite to CCNA Security certification.

This book is a synthesized, distilled, and pared-down effort, with only enough information as is necessary to provide context for the information you need to pass the exam. This is not to say that this book is not a good read, but it is a fair reflection of the type of material that you will need to master in order to be successful with the exam. Read this book, understand the material, and drill yourself with the practice exams, and you stand a very good chance of passing the exam. That said, it's possible that in the course of working through this book, depending on your prior CCNA Security training or on-the-job experience, you might identify topics you are struggling with and might require you to look up more fundamental resources to deal with. This book discusses all the topics on the exam and tests you on all of them, but it does not always provide detailed coverage of all those topics.

Organization and Elements of This Book
When designing a secure network infrastructure, the workflow moves from the perimeter of the network to the inside of the network. After the perimeter is properly secured, the security architect can turn his or her attention to securing devices on the inside of the network perimeter where the endpoints reside. This structured approach is mimicked in the basic organization of this book.

The chapters of this book are organized into four major parts, with each part encapsulating a major idea in the field of network security:

Part I: Network Security Architecture

Part II: Perimeter Security

Part III: Augmenting Depth of Defense

Part IV: Security Inside the Perimeter

You can use this book's organization to your advantage while studying for the CCNA Security 640-553 IINS exam because each part of the book is selfcontained. Although it is recommended that you follow the parts sequentially, there are frequent cross-references to content contained in other chapters if you choose to follow your own path through this book.

Each chapter follows a uniform structure, with graphical cues about especially important or useful material. The structure of a typical chapter is as follows:

Terms You'll Need to Understand: Each chapter begins with a list of the terms you'll need to understand, which define the concepts that you'll need to master before you can be fully conversant with the chapter's subject matter.

Exam Topics Covered in This Chapter: Cisco publishes a list of exam topics for the 640-553 IINS exam. Each chapter of this book begins by listing the exam topics covered in that chapter. See the following 'Self Assessment' element for a complete list of the topics and the chapters where they are covered.

Exam Alerts: Throughout the topical coverage, Exam Alerts highlight material most likely to appear on the exam by using a special layout that looks like this:


Warning - This is what an Exam Alert looks like. An Exam Alert stresses concepts, terms, or activities that will most likely appear in one or more certification exam questions. For that reason, any information found offset in Exam Alert format is worthy of unusual attentiveness on your part.


Even if material isn't flagged as an Exam Alert, all content in this book is associated in some way with test-related material. What appears in the chapter content is critical knowledge.

Notes: This book is an overall examination of basic Cisco network security concepts and practice. As such, there are a number of side excursions into other aspects of network security and prerequisite networking knowledge. So that these do not distract from the topic at hand, this material is placed in notes.


Note - Cramming for an exam will get you through a test, but it won't make you a competent network security practitioner. Although you can memorize just the facts you need to become certified, your daily work in the field will rapidly put you in water over your head if you don't know the underlying principles behind a Cisco Self-Defending Network.


Practice Questions: This section presents a short list of test questions (most chapters have 10 of these) related to the specific chapter topics. Each question has a follow-on explanation of both correct and incorrect answers-this is very important because it is more important to know why you were wrong. Computers are binary and will accept right or wrong as answers, but we aren't, so we don't!

In addition to the topical chapters, this book also provides the following:

Practice Exams: Part V contains the sample tests that are a very close approximation of the types of questions you are likely to see on the current CCNA Security exam.

Answer Keys for Practice Exams: Part V also contains detailed answers to the practice exam questions. Like the questions at the end of the chapters, these explain both the correct answers and the incorrect answers and are therefore very helpful to go through thoroughly as you grade your practice exam. Knowing the topics you struggle with and why you got a question wrong is crucial.

Cram Sheet: This appears as a tear-away sheet inside the front cover of the book. It is a valuable tool that represents a collection of the most difficult-to-remember facts and numbers that the author thinks you should memorize before taking the test.

CD: The CD that accompanies this book features an innovative practice test engine powered by MeasureUp, including 100 practice questions. The practice exam contains question types covering all the topics on the CCNA Security exam, providing you with a challenging and realistic exam simulation environment.

Contacting the Author
I've tried to create a real-world tool and clearly written book that you can use to prepare for and pass the CCNA Security certification exam. That said, I am interested in any feedback that you have that might help make this Exam Cram better for future test-takers. Constructive and reasonable criticism is always welcome and will most certainly be responded to. You can contact the publisher, or you can reach me by email at eric@breezy.ca.

Please also share your exam experience. Did this book help you pass this exam? Did you feel better prepared after you read the book? Was it a confidence booster? Would you recommend this book to your colleagues?

Thanks for choosing me as your personal trainer, and enjoy the book!

-Eric Stewart

Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

About the Authors


Eric Stewart is a self-employed network security contractor who finds his home in Ottawa, Canada. Trained as a computer engineer at the Royal Military College, and later in computer science and economics at Carleton University, Eric has over 20 years of experience in the information technology field-the last 12 years focusing primarily on Cisco Systems routers, switches, VPN concentrators, and security appliances. He likes to divide his time evenly between his two great loves in the field: teaching and doing! The majority of Eric's consulting work has been in the implementation of major security infrastructure initiatives and architectural reviews with the Canadian Federal Government, working at such departments as Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA). A Cisco Certified Systems Instructor (CCSI), he especially enjoys imparting the joy that he takes in his work to his students, as he will often be found enthusiastically teaching Cisco CCNA, CCNP, and CCSP curriculum to students throughout North America and the world.

His previous work with Cisco Press has been as the development editor for two titles, Authorized CCDA Self-Study Guide: Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) (Exam 640-863) and Router Security Strategies: Securing IP Network Traffic Planes.

Eric has a lovely wife, Carol Ann, who is an accomplished music teacher, as well as two teenage children, Scott and Meaghan